Electro chemical reactions always consist of two half reactions taking place in anode and cathode electrodes. In polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells or PEFCs, hydrogen ions produced in anode electrode travel through the ion conductive membrane and reach to the cathode electrode and the released electrons in anode, will go to cathode through an external circuit. These electrons and hydrogen ions react with oxygen producing heat and water in cathode.
In today’s world, one of the most important problems of humanity is the energy. Due to irregular use of fossil fuels, the environment is getting polluted more and more. Therefore, it’s crucial to replace the fossil fuels with modern clean energies. Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies that can be used with any electrical system. Polymer electrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are currently one of the most efficient systems designed to convert chemical energy of hydrogen and oxygen to electricity directly. These systems can be used anywhere from cars to power plants.